In the mid-seventies Angola belonged to the number of large coffee manufacturers. The country produced up to 160 thousand tons of beans, mainly Robusta coffees. Angolan Robusta was considered as one of the best in Africa. It gives neutral but very strong infusion and is used as filler in coffee mixes.
In the international market local grades of Arabica were also appreciated: Ambriz, An-Andulo, Ganda, Novo Redondo, in many respects reminding Brazilian Santos.
In this small African country coffee was introduced by the Belgian colonizers in the thirties of our century.
Today coffee takes an important place in economy of Burundi, being one of the basic export cultures.
Burundian coffee is appreciated in many countries, including the main world coffee consuming states, due to its aroma, rich specific taste, saturation and excellent acidity.
Here high-quality Arabica is grown up. Half of all country economy is engaged in coffee manufacture. The best grade is gathered in the area of Ngozi on high-mountainous plantations. It is fragrant, with strongly pronounced taste.
Burundi, with the population of about 5 million persons annually collects up to 40 thousand tons of beans, gradually expanding coffee manufacture.
Burundian coffee Arabica of wet processing is classified on seven degrees of quality from ААА to ВВВ. The most qualitative coffee (ААА) gives magnificent infusion. Basically coffee of the lowest quality intended for mixing is exported.
The Democratic Republic Congo produces Robusta coffee (80—90 % of total gathering) as the basic one. 240 thousands hectares of coffee plantations are occupied by Robusta coffee, by Arabica – no more than 30 thousand hectares.
Arabica is grown up on high-mountainous plantations at height of 1600-2800 metres above sea level. High-quality grains of Arabica with the high acidity, rich taste and a good saturation is gathered in the country northeast, mainly in areas of East Kisai and Kiwu.
The best grades of coffee are considered to be Kiwu and Itur, grown up nearby Rwanda and Burundi borders on lots of tiny plantations.
Today Congo makes about hundred thousand tons of coffee, but only 10 % of it are exported because of high consumption of country home market.
Coffee cultivation started in this country in the beginning of the XX century. Today the main plantations are concentrated on high-mountainous slopes and plateaus in the west and the northwest of the country.
Arabica gives soft pleasant and sweetish infusion. It is classified on the size of coffee beans. However the volume of the produced Arabica is five times less than volume of the gathered Robusta coffee. In total over 100 thousand tons of coffee is gathered here, most part is exported.
Coffee has been delivered to Kenya from island Reunion by Catholic missionaries in the end of 1893. The priority in coffee branch occurrence here belongs to Englishmen.
Arabica Coffee in Kenya is grown up on high-mountainous plantations at height of 1300-2000 metres above sea level. Arabicа is cultivated both on small and on big modern plantations, on hillsides of the centre and the country West, on border with Uganda.
Two crops are gathered per year, every is realized in six-seven receptions to provide necessary quality of beans.
Last years Kenyans have started to designate coffee under names of areas of gathering and making co-operative societies: Mungala, Kahuhia etc.
The best Kenyan coffee which has been grown up on slopes of Kilimanjaro, Elgon and Meru gives full, sated, balanced infusion with moderate wine and fruit smack.
The best grades of Kenyan Arabica remind some grades of the Colombian coffee to taste.
Excellent quality of Kenyan coffee is the main reason of the constant demand for it in the world. Most part of exported coffee is bought by the Scandinavian countries, Germany, Japan.
This small African country with the population of 11 million people plays an important role in world coffee manufacture.
Local coffee was never included into the number of the best. It is used as a component for mixing, possessing a necessary sharpness, saturation and aroma.
The fifth part of the collected volume of beans is exported — basically to Europe. Among the main importers are Italy and France buying its lion's share. The USA, Japan, the Neth-erlands and Germany also take out coffee from Côte d'Ivoire.
Coffee is the main commodity culture of the island. On its share fall 44 % cost of export. Coffee gathering has reached hundred thousand tons.
Basically Robusta coffee is grown up here. However the country develops also manufac-ture of Arabica. The entire crop goes for export. The main consumer of Madagascar coffee is France.
This country produces exclusively Arabica coffee; similar to Kenyan grade. Nevertheless Malawian coffee is considered to be more refined as possesses expressive aroma and excellent saturation.
Coffee does not occupy an important place in economy of Mozambique. In the central part of the country, in area Manika, excellent beans are grown up. But local coffee is not exported, as all is consumed inside the country.
In 1715 on island Bourbon (the name of Reunion at that time) the coffee tree has been delivered. It has led to sharp lifting of economy of island. At that time coffee became very fashionable drink in Europe, and Louis XIV ordered to break coffee plantations on island. All inhabitants have been obliged to land annually on two hundred coffee trees, and the one who destroys a coffee tree, the death penalty expected on.
The island name passed to local coffee and to coffee trees of Arabica that were taken out from here to other countries.
Now on island Reunion there is no coffee industrial production.
Rwandan coffee is respected highly in the world. It is one of the main export cultures; 70 % of all export cost of the country fall on it. Arabica is produced in high-mountainous areas. In lower and hotter areas — mainly in the prefectures adjoining to lake Kivu, Giseni, Kibue, and also in the district of the Butar city and to the south from capital Kigali — Robusta coffee is grown.
Rwandan Arabica possesses extremely high quality. Its unusually rich and sated taste is a result of favourable natural and environmental conditions.
Coffee for this East African country is an important branch. At first German, and then English colonizers in every possible way developed local coffee producing, mercilessly maintaining cheap work of indigenous population. Having received independence, Tanzania already possessed coffee plantations and experience.
Today its coffee branch is closely connected with the neighbouring Kenya.
Almost all Arabica is grown up on the slopes of mounts Kilimanjaro and the Meru. These grades of coffee are called Kilimanjaro, Moshi, Arusha.
The most prestigious grade of Kilimanjaro coffee is Kibo Chagga, grown up by a tribe chagga on the top slopes of this most known African mountain.
Arabica coffee is grown up also between lakes Tanganyika and Rukva. This grade is called usually Мbеуа — after the city name, or Pare — the commercial name. High-quality Tanzanian Arabica gives fragrant, rich, fully sated drink with delicate acidity.
Robusta coffee which is cultivated in the Bukoba district, gives infusion of neutral taste. Coffee is marked from the higher degree of quality to lower АА, А, В and etc.
Coffee is a leading export culture of Tanzania. 39 % of cost of total export of the country falls on it.
Coffee is the major export culture of Uganda giving annually from 50 to 90 % of foreign currency earnings. Generally, the Robusta coffee grades occupying over 80 % of all area of coffee plantations are grown up here. Uganda is one of its main manufacturers in the world. The best Arabica coffee is gathered in the northeast along Kenyan border — around the mounts Elgon and Bugisu and in the west — around the mountain Ruwensori.
It is typical African coffee with wine tones in aroma. It reminds Kenyan coffee in taste, but it is lighter than it in saturation.
It is possible to assert confidently enough that Ethiopia is a coffee cradle, in particular, of Arabica grades that grow here in wild.
Coffee is cultivated both on tiny patriarchal country plantations and on the large modern ones. However the basic part of production (60 %) is given by wild-growing coffee trees (so-called "forest" coffee) that cover huge areas (app. about 460 thousand hectares, mainly in administrative areas of Kefa, Illubabor, Uollega and others). Actually it is natural thickets of the coffee trees which density is about 10 thousand trunks per a hectare. The so-called "garden" coffee planted near dwellings does not possess such a density. Trees here are rarefied up to 3, 5 thousand trunks per a hectare.
The Ethiopian coffee grows at heights from 1100 to 2100 metres above sea level at mid-annual temperature 20—25°С and precipitations of 1500-2000 mm a year.
Average productivity of coffee is 4 metric centner /hectare. Coffee gathering lasts from August till January.
Two thirds of coffee made in the country is given by the southwest area of Ethiopia covering administrative areas of Kefa, Illubabor, Gamo-Gofai Uollega.
In vicinities of Djimmah, the largest city of the southwest, there are plantations of cultural and semicultural coffee.
To the north of Djimmah, in the Kefa area, the settlements of Grief, Gymbi, Lekempt are located. Coffee from the given region gives sharp and fragrant infusion with wine smack. Taste of coffee Lekempt is especially unusual: balanced, rich and with wine tones.
Commodity manufacture of coffee is the basic specialisation of the southeast area as well. In vicinities of the city of Harrar — former capital of the country — there are the largest coffee plantations. Here the most popular grade of the Ethiopian coffee is made — Harrar. It is classified as Extra-Sifted, i.e. coarse-beaned, Longberry — medium-beaned and Shortberry — fine-beaned.
The most widespread among them is longberry sold in the market under the names Long-berri Mocha or Abbyssinien Longberry.
Coffee produced in Ethiopia is exclusively dry processed Arabica. It is interesting that both glorified Ethiopian grades — Harrar and Djimmah — outwardly look unattractively, however possesses a magnificent bouquet and are used in mixes with Colombian and Javanese and also for creation of a commercial grade of Mocha Style having much in common with Yemen Mocha.
In the centre and in the south of the country there is Sidamo coffee manufacture. Coffee from here is known as Sidamo, Ethiopian Fancies etc. It is marked as Y (or Ygra) Chelte.
The most fragrant and high-quality grade of coffee from Sidamo area is Yirgacheffe. It is estimated by experts as one of the best grades. It gives rich infusion with surprisingly long aftertaste in which flower notes are obviously felt.
Coffee of Yirgacheffe is exported to Japan, the USA. Among the European countries the considerable share is bought by Germany.
Ethiopia is one of the basic manufacturers of coffee in the world and on the African continent.
Today the country — one of the leaders of coffee manufactures. What is even more surprising - the considerable part of wild coffee groves is still not exploited. Thus, the potential of development of coffee branch in Ethiopia is very high and does not leave doubts in great "coffee" future of the country.
Coffee in this country has been delivered in the beginning of the XX century from the nearby countries. Now more high-quality coffee is produced in the north round the settlements Kasama, Nakonde, Isoka and about the capital Lusaka. In many respects Zambian coffee reminds the Kenyan one.
This country has started coffee cultivation not long time ago — in the 60s of the XX century. The merit of it belongs to the South African farmers who have based here the first coffee plantations.
The main areas of manufacture are concentrated along the border with Mozambique.
Local coffee possesses pure, soft and fruit taste, wine aftertaste and excellent aroma.