Vietnam is the second after Brazil manufacturer and exporter of coffee. These goods annually bring more than $1 billion. Vietnamese now use much coffee.
Coffee in Vietnam began to be cultivated in colonial board of France. The first landings appeared in 1888 in a province of Nge An. Then the plateau Thaw Nguen became the basic area of coffee cultivation.
Now 506 thousand hectares is under plantations, productivity of coffee makes 2-2.5 tons per 1 hectare.
The centre of coffee manufacture now is the province of Dak Lak located in the Central mountain area. Though it is in the south of the country the local microclimate differs from the South Vietnamese climate and is very favourable for coffee cultivation.
In the administrative centre of a province of Dak Lak, the city of Buon of Ma Tuot works a coffee stock exchange.
Despite the reached successes, the Vietnamese manufacturers of coffee and the country authorities are anxious by slow advancement of the goods in the world market. For example, Le Ngoc Cu the chairman of National committee of a province of Dak Lak mentions: "Vietnam is the second in the world manufacturer of coffee but the income of its export makes only $1.8-2.2 billion while Switzerland which is not the manufacturer of coffee earns $12 billion a year».
In 2010 the effort of coffee manufacturers are directed not on increasing in the areas but on improvement of beans quality and productivity increase.
If Ethiopia is traditionally named as a «coffee cradle», Yemen is called the «father of coffee».
Many experts on a fragrant drink as if having agreed assert that any grade cannot be compared to coffee of Yemen.
Yemen is a small state in the southwest of Asia, located on Arabian Peninsula. In the north and the northeast Yemen borders on Saudi Arabia, in the east on Oman. From Africa this country is separated with a narrow strait. Besides, Yemen possesses some islands in Indian Ocean, in Bab el Mandeb and in the Red sea.
The territory of Yemen is located basically on a plateau which in the north and the east passes into the desert Rub al-Khali. In the west of the country, along coast of the Red sea the flat zone is.
Surprisingly, that till the end of the 17 centuries the European world received coffee only from Yemen. It was that real and glorified Mocha coffee. Till the middle of 17 centuries Turkish and Egyptian merchants came to Yemen and bought the best beans. They bought the crop not yet reaped from trees, cared of its gathering and processing. And gathered coffee was simply dried under the sun.
In the end of the seventeenth century the Dutch got hold of beans from India and soon based coffee plantations on islands of Java and Sumatra. In several years they became the main coffee suppliers to Europe.
Since then the decline of Yemen coffee trade began. However, the well-known grade of Mocha is still popular and enjoys the same wide respect as several centuries ago.
The name of Mocha comes from the port with the same name.
India is the first state outside Africa that began to grow up coffee. There are 123 681 coffee plantations in India. The main regions of coffee growing are Karnataka, Kerala, Tamilnadu.
Coffee crop is gathered in November and in February. The peculiar climate, soil, processing and selection have left the mark on coffee that resulted in a number of botanical versions on coffee culture.
The Indian Arabica coffee are subdivided into following grades – Plantation A, Plantation B, Plantation P.B. and lower.
The Indian coffee (Plantation A) possesses pleasant bitterish taste and strong, well expressed aroma with a chocolate shade and sometimes and with unique aroma of the Indian spices - cloves, cardamom and pepper.
The most popular Indian grade of Arabica is Karnataka. This grade is grown up at height of 750-1500 m above sea level. Coffee beans give soft fragrant infusion with a bit of sourness.
India occupies 4 % of the world coffee market and exports from 70 % to 80 % of coffee made in the country. According to the data of the Indian Coffee Bureau export of elite coffee grades makes round 7-9 thousand pounds a year.
One of the most interesting grades of the Indian coffee is Monsooned coffee processed by a dry method.
Monsooned Malabar is the most interesting grade of Indian Arabica from the city of Malabar where it is grown up on small farms, then placed in roving bags and stored in sheds from June till November when monsoon winds are blowing. From rains beans absorb moisture and increase in volume twice, getting bronze-yellowish colour (the usual coffee is green). This way of processing of coffee appeared with development of the high-speed ships. At the time of sailing navigation beans travelled within many weeks and had enough time to turn yellow and get special smack. After their way to Europe was reduced, local inhabitants had to resort to special "monsoonal" processing to keep taste and look of coffee habitual to Europeans.
The best on quality monsoonal coffee is classified into Monsooned Malabar AA and Monsooned Basanically.
This country is notable in the coffee world for being the first to grow up coffee, to be precise - on island Java, at the end of the XVII century by the Dutch.
On islands of Indonesia the rarest, the most expensive and well-known coffee Kopi Luwak is grown.
It is a question of the well-known grade of coffee Kopi Luwak to which is not present equal on a rarity and the price. This coffee comes from Indonesia — it grows on islands Javas, Sumatra and Sulawesi.
“Kopi” in the Indonesian language means "coffee» and “Luwak” is a small animal, a kind of a small animal of viverrids family. Process of Kopi Luwak grains production consists in that small animals (palm viverras) eat coffee cherries, digest them and egest. Subsequently these grains are collected and used for coffee preparation. This special process of manufacture of coffee is the explanation of its high price and rarity.
Special brightness of taste of coffee Kopi Luwak is achieved due to special properties of gastric juice of a small animal which includes rich in aroma substance - cebetin.
Despite a special origin of this drink, it satisfies the highest quality standards. Coffee of this grade possesses caramel shades and Amaretto smells. Thanks to this natural selection, beans of this grade have the highest quality in the world and the organic standard.
This coffee is called by professionals-tasters a drink of gods.
Papua-new Guinea occupies the western part of island. Its east part belongs to Indonesia.
The famous grade of coffee from Papua-new Guinea is coffee Kimel A 4689. In the country strict sorting and classification of grades is organized – the highest has the mark АА, it is given only to a small part of a crop.
Coffee Kimel A 4689 differs from all Indonesian grades of the coffee. Coffee on island is grown up on small farms «Coffee Gardens». Farmers process coffee grains in the natural dry way. But besides, coffee is also grown up on big plantations. Planters use the equipment for damp processing of coffee; therefore they can better supervise all production phases of coffee.
All coffee growing on island is a cultural variation of Jamaican Blue Mountain.
Coffee of grade Kimel A 4689 has natural simple taste. It can be found on free sale.
The drink from coffee of grade Kimel A 4689 turns out to be very tasty, with expressive fruit notes - sometimes even it seems that it is not coffee, and a cornucopia of fruit aromas.